TYPE 2 DIABETES: THE FACTS




TYPE 2 DIABETES has historically afflicted older adults, but the prevalence is rising quickly in children worldwide,
 mirroring the increase in childhood obesity.
 One clinic in New York City
reported a tenfold increase in new cases of diabetes from 1990 to 2000, with half of all
new cases being type 2.

In 2001, less than 3 percent of newly diagnosed diabetes in
adolescents was type 2. Only a decade later, by 2011, this had increased to 45 percent.

That is a truly stunning epidemic. In less time than it takes to age a good cheese, type 2
diabetes had risen like a cyclone, leaving only devastation in its wake.
Overall, type 2 diabetes accounts for approximately 90–95 percent of diabetes cases worldwide. It typically develops gradually over many years and progresses in an orderly manner from normal to prediabetes to full-blown type 2 diabetes. The risk increases with age and obesity.

Hyperglycemia occurs due to insulin resistance, rather than the lack of insulin, as in type 1 diabetes. When researchers first developed insulin assays, they expected type 2 diabetes patients to show very low levels, but to their surprise, insulin levels were high, not low. The failure of insulin to lower blood glucose is called insulin resistance. 

The body overcomes this resistance by increasing insulin secretion to maintain normal blood glucose levels. The price to be paid is high insulin levels. However, this compensation has a limit.
When insulin secretion fails to keep pace with increasing resistance, blood glucose rises,
leading to a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes.

DIFFERENT CAUSES REQUIRE DIFFERENT CURES

FUNDAMENTALLY, TYPE 1 and type 2 diabetes are polar opposites, one characterized by very low insulin levels and the other by very high ones. Yet, curiously, standard drugtreatment paradigms for the two types are identical. Both primarily target blood glucose, with the goal of lowering it by increasing insulin, even though the high level of blood glucose is only the symptom of the disease and not the disease itself. Insulin helps type 1 diabetes because
that disease’s underlying core problem is a lack of naturally occurring insulin in the body.

However, the underlying core problem of type 2 diabetes is insulin resistance and it remains
virtually untreated because there is no clear consensus upon its cause. Without this understanding, we don’t have a hope of reversing it. That is our challenge. It may appear formidable, but its rewards are equally enticing: a cure for type 2 diabetes.
TYPE 2 DIABETES: THE FACTS TYPE 2 DIABETES: THE FACTS Reviewed by Leembo on March 02, 2019 Rating: 5

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